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Additionally, we used multiple logistic regression to control for the associations of unprotected anal intercourse with the 5 confounders mentioned earlier. Prevalence and correlates of anal sex with men among young adult women in an inner city minority neighborhood. We found that unprotected anal intercourse was associated with 5 risk factors frequent drug use, binge alcohol use, partnerships with incarcerated men, exchange sex partnerships, and multiple partnerships that are often also associated with heterosexual HIV and STD infection. Male-to-female transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Additionally, the relation between unprotected anal intercourse and other risky behaviors suggests that providers should also screen for frequent drug use, exchange sex, and other HIV behavioral risk factors. Nevertheless, HIV infection was independently associated with a self-reported STD diagnosis in this analysis and prevalent herpes simplex virus type-2 infection in another recent analysis from this study H Hagan, SM Jenness, T Wendel, et al. The authors thank Blayne Cutler, James Hadler, Paul Kobrak, and Monica Sweeney for reviewing earlier drafts of this article and also acknowledge the contributions of the field staff. Unprotected anal intercourse was associated with an increased likelihood of STD diagnoses in our study.
Heterosexual anal sex among female drug users: Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus: Behavioral surveillance among people at risk for HIV infection in the U. One reason for no observed association between unprotected anal intercourse and HIV may be that we compared longer-term HIV infections with recent unprotected anal intercourse. Finally, RDS techniques for sampling and analysis are still developing, and these results are not necessarily representative of the larger target population of heterosexual women residentially or socially connected to high-risk areas in New York City. Extensions of respondent-driven sampling: Additionally, we used multiple logistic regression to control for the associations of unprotected anal intercourse with the 5 confounders mentioned earlier. Still, the collinearity of unprotected anal and unprotected vaginal intercourse presents a problem for all research attempting to determine the underlying risk of unprotected anal intercourse per se; the small sample size of women with no unprotected anal or unprotected vaginal intercourse in our study also prevented further analyses on this group. Male-to-female transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Relationship between heterosexual anal sex, injection drug use and HIV infection among black men and women. Sexual risk among injection drug users recruited from syringe exchange programs in California. Conclusions Women in this high-risk heterosexual population frequently reported unprotected anal intercourse in the past year; this behavior was associated with a large increased risk of STDs, even with control for other high-risk behaviors also associated with unprotected anal intercourse. Although we did not examine the frequency of unprotected anal intercourse relative to unprotected vaginal intercourse, we constructed a 3-way variable that accounted for the overlap of unprotected anal intercourse with unprotected vaginal intercourse. In the sensitivity test using an RDS unweighted model, the main association between unprotected anal intercourse and STD diagnoses held. Feb 13 [Epub ahead of print] [ PubMed ] Relative efficacy of a multisession sexual risk-reduction intervention for young men released from prisons in 4 states. The authors thank Blayne Cutler, James Hadler, Paul Kobrak, and Monica Sweeney for reviewing earlier drafts of this article and also acknowledge the contributions of the field staff. Additionally, the relation between unprotected anal intercourse and other risky behaviors suggests that providers should also screen for frequent drug use, exchange sex, and other HIV behavioral risk factors. Health care providers, and specifically sexual health providers, should screen heterosexual women for unprotected anal intercourse and counsel them on the increased STD and HIV risk of this type of intercourse, despite the lack of pregnancy risk. These do not invalidate the past research, but could overestimate the association between HIV or STD infection and unprotected anal intercourse in the context of other measured and unmeasured risk factors. In a previous analysis, we found that this population of high-risk heterosexuals test infrequently despite common encounters with HIV testing environments. Prevalence and correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in adolescents and adults in the United States. In a separate analysis data not shown , unprotected anal intercourse was not associated with HIV infection at either the bivariate or multivariate level. Compared with women who had only unprotected vaginal intercourse in the past year, women who had unprotected anal intercourse were 2. Accessed April 28, Population prevalence of reported and unreported HIV and related behaviors among the household adult population in New York City,
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