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Some of these grounds have been accepted by the Shari'a state courts of appeal who have ruled in favor of the defendants on the basis of these procedural points. Academic freedom largely is respected in practice. A study of female prisoners in the Multan jail in Punjab concluded that the majority were from rural areas, 69 percent lacked any formal education, 26 percent could read only the Quran, and only a small proportion had some formal education. Eighty-two percent of the female prisoners came from rural areas, 88 percent were completely illiterate, and more than half came from families with a monthly income of less than 1, Pakistani rupees, or roughly 40 U. From birth, the life of the average Pakistani woman is characterized by her economic, social, cultural and political subordination. Some advocates of Shari'a have complained about the absence of a specialized Shari'a court of appeal at the federal level, arguing that the judges of the Federal Court of Appeal and Supreme Court are not well-versed in Shari'a;some also fear, perhaps, that these institutions are too close to the federal government, and therefore likely to be opposed to Shari'a. However, even as human rights monitors worldwide have expanded their focus to include the nature of abuses regardless of their motivation, the international community has barely begun to concern itself with violations of human rights that are gender-specific in character. However, to grasp fully the desperate situation facing women in custody in Pakistan, it is necessary to understand why and how women are detained in the first place.
In practice, most of the sodomy cases which have come before the Shari'a courts have not been about consensual, sexual activity between adults but rather allegations of adults sexually abusing children; Human Rights Watch is not aware of anyone sentenced to death for sodomy with an adult. The reasons for the decisions are not always clearly articulated. As one observer has noted: Safiya Husseini, a divorced woman in her thirties from a poor background, was found guilty of adultery and sentenced to death by stoning by the Upper Shari'a Court in Gwadabawa, SokotoState, on October 9, Some have done so in the belief that their cases would be treated faster, but overall, such cases are rare. Yet there are numerous other human rights violations in Nigeria which are at least as serious and deserve urgent attention on the part of the international community. However, in a surprising development, it was reported that the state counsel for NigerState had claimed that the Shari'a court did not have the power to hear the case. His case is the starkest illustration of the consequences of absence of legal representation and of the vulnerability of defendants to pressure and bad advice. A resident of Gusau, the state capital, told Human Rights Watch: Yunusa Chiyawa Yunusa Rafin Chiyawa was the first man to be sentenced to death for adultery. However, available figures clearly indicate that, after a sharp decline in convicted prisoners during the tenure of Benazir Bhutto, the number of female detainees is rapidly rising. Zia reinforced the legal strictures he imposed on women with a series of informal regulations and unwritten polices designed to curtail women's personal liberty and their participation in public life. According to sociologist Farida Shaheed, "from to unprecedented numbers of women young and old from all classes broke the unwritten rules of conduct prescribed by purdah [seclusion of women]. Some of these violations do not stem directly from the legislation itself, but from the way it has been used and from a climate of intolerance which has accompanied the introduction of the new legislation. Ambassador Arnold Raphel, was killed in a plane crash, the cause of which has never been determined. The officer was suspended but not arrested. On August 19, an appeals court upheld the verdict and sentence. One of APWA's lasting contributions was its campaign against gender discrimination in the family. Bhutto espoused an ideology of "Islamic socialism" that included land reform, nationalization of basic industries and "roti, kapra aur makan" bread, clothing, and shelter. You should take your women along with you as comrades in every sphere of life. They launched what was to become the first full-fledged national women's movement in Pakistan: The matter of her refused visit to the US was raised in an interview by the Washington Post with the then President of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf, who claimed to champion "Moderate Islam" that "respect the rights of women", and complained that his country is "unfairly portrayed as a place where rape and other violence against women are rampant and frequently condoned". However, preliminary research suggests that women who kill their husbands in Pakistan receive heavier sentences than husbands who kill their wives. Police officials still involved in rape, human rights violations: Summary Since , twelve states in northern Nigeria have added criminal law to the jurisdiction of Shari'a Islamic law courts. Crossways alleged that phone and countries were akin him for passing his Property Amendment rights. Significant Characteristics of the Female Prison Population The vast majority of Pakistan's female prisoners are poor and illiterate.
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