International sex slave trade
Some governments believed that, although the Convention did not directly criminalise prostitution, it contained certain provisions that appeared to point in this direction, thus contradicting provisions on prostitution contained in national legislation. It has been demonstrated that organized crime groups often use the 10 same routes and similar methods for trafficking of people and narcotics Schloenhardt These conditions imply that everything should be treated as a commodity, including labour. Although no direct positions can be drawn from the philosophical standpoints on the degree of choice, the two opposing views almost always end up in arguing for different mechanisms in the trafficking chain and for different policy conclusions. This puts society as a whole under debate, namely a capitalist society which creates these forms of constraint within which voluntary acts are possible, and also leads us to reflect on the entire ethical and moral context within which this issue is debated.
Police action led to various sentences and deportations. This is, no doubt, fundamental, since despite the intensive production of conventions and international declarations, concern for the gravity of the trafficking of women for the purposes of sexual exploitation is still not reflected in the penal legislation of various countries. Countries where it is legal to buy and sell sex, as well as pimping and owning a brothel are coded as 3. As expected, net migration and heroin smuggling are also positively related to trafficking. In some countries or regions in Africa, Eastern Europe, South East Asia or the Middle East, human trafficking may include child labor or women who are sold as mail order brides or coerced into servile marriage. Its causes are intrinsically linked to other social, economic, political and cultural phenomena, meaning that in several cases it does not just involve a violation of rights resulting from trafficking. Not just pimping, not just illegal immigration, but potential trafficking situations. Sex trafficking in context 5Sex trafficking is far from being an isolated problem. The sex-work feminists argue that the lack of protection for sex sellers, induced by criminalization, leads to all kinds of exploitation, including trafficking. Trafficking is an economic activity in which organizations try to make profits Salt ; Salt and Stein But it happens every day. For various authors, the laws which lead to trafficked women being immediately deported, or which make their stay in the host country dependent on giving evidence, are a particular concern. Kathleen Barry , one of the founders of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women CATW and one of the most active voices on this front, argues that sexual exploitation is a political condition and the basis of the subordination of and discrimination against women and the perpetuation of patriarchy. Although it is based on the idea of free labour, capitalism, in fact, has a tendency to use not only labour but also space, the surrounding environment and nature in a destructive way. Some NGOs and academics believe that these measures ultimately become more a part of the problem than a solution: A direct effect would be that people refrain from buying sex since they are afraid of getting caught. They find that working location and country of work are the main 4 determinants of rights enforcement, while individual and family characteristics play a marginal role. Ehrenreich and Hochschild, argue that any policy designed to fight human trafficking must extend beyond criminalising traffickers to reinforce the rights of immigrants and workers. This led to a racially and sexually based panic that gave rise to the fear of white slave trafficking. One aspect of the situation seems to stand out in particular: As trafficking is closely linked to prostitution, abolitionist feminists argue that the former is more easily fought by fighting prostitution and believe that the path followed by various states, including Holland and Germany, which involves establishing a distinction between trafficking and prostitution, is dangerous. The wretchedness and poverty underlying such decisions should be confronted. The crime of human trafficking no longer appeared in the section of the Penal Code referring to crimes against sexual freedom, but was moved to the chapter on crimes against personal freedom. Human trafficking is the illegal trade of human beings. Due to this diversity of legal situations, the Protocol does not clarify this controversial issue but leaves it as a matter for individual states to decide. For this reason the main analysis will be of European countries.
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