International sex trafficking journal
Next, when considering harm, findings from studies around the world indicate consistently that most trafficked people experience violence and hazardous, exhausting work, and few emerge without longer-term, sometimes disabling, physical and psychological damage [ 54 ]. Labor intermediaries can include a chain of connected or separate, formal or informal, trustworthy or untrustworthy agents. A dialogue is needed about how much and in what ways low-wage workers are currently exploited and about the ways that work-related hazards might harm individuals, including by disabling parents, who may then be forced to send their children to work—perhaps producing a generational cycle of disability and disenfranchisement. Recent research indicated that Bolivian migrants were exploited by compatriots for textile work in Argentina, whereas the opposite was true among Kyrgyz construction workers who secured decent work in Kazakhstan through their own Kyrgyz networks [ 19 ]. Health of men, women, and children in post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam: This perspective incorporates forms of harm beyond physical, psychological, and occupational health problems and includes social, financial, and legal harm and further suggests that the damage from exploitation can transmit across generations.
This is the type of evidentiary groundwork that was laid to address complex social problems such as intimate partner violence and that is now included in many routine health surveys and the international calculation of the Global Burden of Disease [ 25 , 64 ]. Labor intermediaries can include a chain of connected or separate, formal or informal, trustworthy or untrustworthy agents. This can begin a generational cycle of entry into hazardous labor, such as has been observed among families and children working in palm oil plantations in Indonesia, mica mines in India, or tobacco farms in the United States [ 58 , 59 ]. Labor inspections are also uncommon, and when they do occur, inspectors are unlikely to check if workers are trafficked [ 55 ]. Moreover, a public health approach to prevent human trafficking should simultaneously generate greater attention to its less recognized sibling, labor exploitation. Local livelihood challenges have pushed millions of individuals away from their homes towards income opportunities that are often difficult to refuse or in which conditions are nonnegotiable—including situations of human trafficking [ 43 ]. This brings us back to the proposition we posed initially: Importantly, this framework conceptualizes exploitation as a potentially preventable cause of harm [ 41 ]. These efforts are often based on the premise that, if individuals were more informed about migrating for work, they would be less susceptible to being exploited. Forced labour and forced marriage. As the first medical journal collection on human trafficking, exploitation, and health, the PLOS collection offers a good start towards gaining greater attention from the health sector. United Nations General Assembly. Workers are rarely provided personal protective equipment PPE or medical insurance and few workplaces are equipped with health or safety measures, especially in less regulated sectors. Global estimates of modern slavery: Similarly, initiatives to tackle modern slavery, forced labor, and human trafficking need to make the links between human trafficking and health by working more closely with the health sector [ 62 ]. For instance, among posttrafficking service users in the Mekong, an average work day 7 days per week for fishermen was 19 hours, was 15 hours for domestic workers, and was 13 for factory workers [ 54 ]. To date, there has been very limited engagement by the global health community in the dialogue on or responses to trafficking. For both communities, a public health approach that treats the harm from exploitation as preventable will help foster interventions on the large scale that is needed. Providing evidence alongside expert commentary, this collection points to the range of clinical specialties and policy considerations required to address human trafficking as a global health determinant. Informal migrant networks or social networks are often thought to confer greater protection from exploitation; however, this is not always the case [ 39 ]. Through the declaration of the Sustainable Development Goals, the international community has promised that efforts will be dedicated to reducing poverty, ensuring healthy lives, and, most encouragingly, promoting decent work. This perspective incorporates forms of harm beyond physical, psychological, and occupational health problems and includes social, financial, and legal harm and further suggests that the damage from exploitation can transmit across generations. The ecological framework introduced in this paper might serve as a starting point to direct research to investigate key structural, social, and individual drivers of exploitation. We urgently need to know more about the health burden posed by exploitative, low-wage, and hazardous labor, and, most importantly, the associated risk factors, especially in Asia and Africa—locations where some of the most exploitative labor occurs [ 63 ]. For instance, Nepali workers from rural areas often seek jobs abroad e. However, there remains little evidence to demonstrate that human trafficking is caused by information deficits among prospective migrants or about the positive effects of premigration awareness interventions [ 45 ].
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