The results of our study also found that the left and right bony nasolacrimal canals were similar in size. The diameter of the bony nasolacrimal canal was measured at the level of the infraorbital floor on axial CT scans parallel to the orbital floor. Janssen et al 8 documented that female subjects had a significantly smaller minimum diameter on average 0. We retrospectively evaluated patients with no excess tearing and with no evidence of pathologic conditions affecting the bony nasolacrimal canal. These data were compared by sex. Results Table 1 gives the measurements of the bony nasolacrimal canal. The anteroposterior and transverse diameters, sectional area of the bony nasolacrimal canal, and the angle of the bony canal and the nasal floor did not differ significantly between the right and left sides. In summary, the present study found that the bony nasolacrimal canal was narrower and flatter against the nasal floor in female than in male patients and that the diameter and the sectional angle between the bony canal and the nasal floor generally increased with age up to 40 years.
The anteroposterior diameter of the bony nasolacrimal canal was significantly greater in male patients 5. Females had a significantly smaller anteroposterior diameter mean 0. We retrospectively evaluated patients with no excess tearing and with no evidence of pathologic conditions affecting the bony nasolacrimal canal. Bartley 2 classified acquired lacrimal duct obstruction into primary and secondary causes. Results Table 1 gives the measurements of the bony nasolacrimal canal. Janssen et al 8 measured the minimum transverse diameters of the bony nasolacrimal canal in a group of normal adults using axial CT images; the mean transverse diameter was 3. In our study, female patients had a significantly smaller bony nasolacrimal canal; in female patients the anteroposterior diameter was on average 0. The angle between the bony canal and the nasal floor ranged from We measured the diameter at the level of the infraorbital margin, while Janssen et al measured the minimum diameter of the bony canal. The mean age of the males was In our study, the measured anteroposterior and transverse diameters were equally scattered. The diameter of the bony nasolacrimal canal was measured at the level of the infraorbital floor on axial CT scans parallel to the orbital floor. The results of this quantitative anatomical study may explain why primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction is more frequent in younger female patients. Janssen et al 8 pointed out that measurement errors would occur if the anteroposterior diameter of the bony canal was measured on axial CT scans because of the backward slope of the bony canal relative to the axial plane and suggested that measurements of the transverse diameter were more reliable. The sectional area of the bony nasolacrimal canal ranged from 2. Overall, the anteroposterior diameter of the bony nasolacrimal canal ranged from 0. This may be explained by the different measurement methods used. Data are given as mean SD. On the other hand, primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction PANDO is idiopathic, and several causative factors have been proposed. In our study, the bony nasolacrimal canal of children was not examined. However, in the present study, female patients had a greater change in the diameter and the angle between the bony canal and the nasal floor. The findings from our study showed that the mean diameter of the bony nasolacrimal canal was considerably larger than that reported by Janssen et al. We did not measure the diameter at the smallest diameter. Several predisposing factors have been suggested, including cigarette smoking, facial-sinonasal trauma, and a history of dacryocystitis. The angle between these calculated lines was measured as the angle between the bony canal and the nasal floor Figure 2. In the early 20th century, Duke-Elder, 5 based on anatomical observations, reported that the transverse diameter is approximately 4. The sex difference may be attributed to females' smaller midfacial structures.
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